杨立志武当道教核心价值观的现代意义

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武当文化研究会会长杨立志致辞

武当道教的核心价值观是什么? 如何诠释武当道教的核心价值观? 武当道教核心价值观的现代意义是什么? 这是我们从事武当道教文化研究的学者必须回答的问题。

武当道教核心价值观的浓缩体现

什么是价值观? 价值观是人们对世界上一切事物的认识和对待一切事物的态度。 什么是核心价值观? 核心价值观价值观是指一个人或某个社会群体对其周围客观事物(包括人、事、物)的意义和重要性的总体评价和总体看法。 简单来说,就是是非、善恶的标准,是人们判断周围客观事物所遵循的行为准则。 它是对一定社会群体的事业和目标的认可。 某个民族国家的核心价值观是这个民族国家文化精神和文化传统的最集中体现,也是这个民族“安身立命”、立身之本世界各国都有自己的特色。 核心价值观是经得起时间考验的,所以一旦确定就不会轻易改变。 它们是人们长期以来所相信的概念。 所谓核心,就是指最重要的关键概念。 字数不宜太多,一般是三五个容易记住的字。

那么,武当道教的核心价值观是什么? 或者说武当文化的基本精神是什么? 十多年前,我在《武当文化概论》中说过:“武当文化是一种深受‘道家精神’影响的文化。因此,道教的一些思想和固有传统长期以来一直受到人们的尊重。时代深刻地影响了武当山人类的活动及其创造,我们在研究武当文化时,有必要对武当文化起主导作用、处于核心地位的基本思想观念进行梳理和分析。丰富多彩、博大精深,表达武当文化基本精神的思想不是简单的,而是包含多种要素的思想体系。” 梳理后,我们认为“道法自然”、“清静无为”; “统一”; “重人重生”、“诚实行善”等道家道理是武当文化基本精神的主要内容。

有一次,我和朋友讨论武当道教的核心价值观。 我对上述“道法自然”、“天人合一”等道家原则做出了回应。 他表示,虽然内容很全面,但核心价值观的表达应该更加简洁和凝练。 最好用2-3个词来表达,以便人们记住。 我的脑海里立刻浮现出的词就是“太和”二字。 我认为武当道教核心价值观最简洁的表达就是“太和”。 因为永乐皇帝创建武当山寺时,赐名武当山为“大岳太和山”。 永乐十五年(1417年)2月6日凌晨,钦差大臣下令修建武当山行宫。 钦差大臣、大将军隆平侯张欣、翰林学士杨融,遵永乐帝圣旨,上奉天门奏章:“武当山,古名太和。此山又名大岳,今称大岳太和山,山顶的金色宫殿,名曰大岳太和宫,吾佩服之。” 正月十二日,各吏补稿,下圣旨:“是。臣敬佩此。” 600年前,永乐皇帝下令将武当山命名为“大岳太和山”,实际上说明了“太和”是武当道教的核心价值。

“太和”二字出自《周易》:“大道之变,各正命,守太和,益贞节”。 寓意“太和”是吉祥之道,有利于万物生长。

《庄子·天运》也谈到“太和”:“最幸福的人,首先应响应人事,遵循天理,实行五德,响应自然。然后调整四时,以达到和谐。万物生生不息,四时轮回,万物生生不息。” “太和”是指阴阳的和谐、和谐,可以形成天地,促进天地万物的生长和发展。 “太和”二字体现了古代中国人对宇宙和谐的渴望:天地和谐、人与自然和谐、人与人和谐、人与自我和谐。

据《水经注》记载,武当山六朝时称“太和山”。 太和山为何得名? 古山志称武当山山形“旋转如地轴天门”。 据宋代道经解释:“地轴为水灵龟,天为火灵圣蛇。” 这说明古人发现武当山形似巨龟。 先民不仅发现武当山孤峰熊熊燃烧,还发现天柱峰及其西北峰形似神龟,这是北方水神玄武的形象。 他们认为这是神所启示的下里上坎的重叠,象征着“水火相和”、阴阳和谐,故称此山为太和山。 太和山这个名字的主要含义是: 1、此山赋有太和元气,能生天地; 2、山势如火焰,水神玄武镇压山顶,象征水火相调、阴阳调和; 3.太和山的元气 它连接着天与人,所以在这座山修道的人很容易达到太和的境界。

武当道教核心价值观简述

武当道教的核心价值观可以概括为两个字:太和。 它包括四个层次:(1)平和:个人身心的和谐; (2)和谐:人与人之间的和谐; (3)和谐:人与自然的和谐; (4)和:天地和谐。

(1)平安:个人身心和谐。 “太和”的思想体现在人生观上,主要崇尚宁静、平和:即自己身心的宁静与和谐。 《易经·仙卦》云:“圣人感人心,天下太平”。 只有人心安宁,世界才能和谐稳定。 古人认为,社会管理应从管理人心开始。 管理人心,是统治者希望通过道德礼教的启蒙,提高人们的内在修养,从而凝聚人心、规范行为。 和平通常是指没有战争或敌对和暴力的国家。 也用来形容人缺乏兴奋或平静。 例如武当山神道寺栏杆上的装饰图案——莲花瓶,象征着平安。 这里形容人恪守伦理道德,通过自身修养,达到内心平静、安宁和谐、与人为善、乐观豁达、身心和谐的精神状态。 。

所谓“民心”:一是指每个人的情感、愿望等; 《尚书·大语墨》:“人心险恶,道心微妙,精一,任其执着。” ” 人心险恶难测,道心微妙难懂。 只有真诚、一心一意,坚持正道,才能治理好国家。 “人心”有善有恶,很容易受到物欲的诱惑。 “道心”是最善良的,很容易被“人心”所欺骗。 道心必须主宰人心,人心也必须服从道心。 这样,“人心”才能转危为安。 只有不断修德修性,才能使道心成为“一身之主”,统帅人心,通过性命双修达到与道真正的和谐。 故《西山仙会真记·修心》云:“真人上仙,教人修道,即修心。教人修心,即修心”。道。”

(2)和谐:人与人之间的和谐。 主要是提倡人与人之间的和谐。 道教提倡勤俭、仁慈、诚实守信,以平和宽容的精神待人接物,使人民和睦相处、国家和睦相处,从而达到“万国咸宁”的局面。

1、提倡仁爱、节俭而不争。 老子《道德经》云:“吾有三宝,我持守之。第一者是慈悲,第二者是节俭,第三者是不敢为天下先”。 用白话来说:“吾有三宝,我持守之。第一曰慈,二曰俭,三曰不敢为天下。” 老子阐述仁,把爱和同情作为人类和睦相处的基本动力; 他主张勤俭节约。 ,反对铺张浪费,反对铺张浪费; 他主张谦让、不争,反对争强好胜。 以和平宽容的精神待人接物,人与人之间才能和睦相处,国与国之间才能和平相处,从而实现世界的和谐与安宁。

2、崇尚善行,积德行善。 道教追求长寿和真正的和谐。 想要长寿,除了修炼内丹外,还必须多做善事,积累功德。 《太上励志篇》云:“善行有善报,恶行有恶行”。 “福祸无从,只能自作自受。” “积累善行的房子,永远会受到祝福。” “人若欲在地成仙,当行三百善事;若想在天上成仙,当行一千二百善事。” 武当道教经典中反复强调积善成仙、积恶造罪的思想,宣扬只有行善积德的人才能长寿,达到真正的和谐。

3、崇尚诚实守信。 行善积德,与诚信密不可分。 诚信是做人之本。 只有诚信,才有利于身体健康、事业发展、家庭和谐、社会安宁。 道教自诞生之日起,就把“崇道弘诚”、“至诚守信”写在其伦理纲领中。 宋元以来,随着商品经济的发展,武当道教特别强调商人必须诚实守信,强调人们向神明贡献的香火钱财必须是“净财”和“净贿”。 “通过自己诚实的劳动赚取的。 《第一谛十诫》:“要忠不孝,仁不忠,忠于君王亲人,忠于万物”。

(3)和谐:人与自然的和谐。 人们常用“道法自然”、“天人合一”来概括自然与人的和谐状态。 老子的名言是:“人法地,地法天,天法道,道法自然”。 道教认为,人的一切行为都必须顺应自然而不违背自然,即顺其自然,不得违背自然。 自然特征。 “天人合一”是指天与人、自然与人造的相互联系、相似性,强调自然与人造物的相互协调、和谐共生。

老子说:圣人“能养万物之性而不敢为”。 “辅”字不仅有做某事的意思,还有顺应自然规律行事的意思。 “自然”与“无为”是联系在一起的。 目的是控制违反自然规律的行为,排除外界意志的干扰,主张一切事情都按照自己可能的趋势来处理。 老子也说:“道总是无为而为”。 道家继承老子思想,强调天道自然无为,人道顺其自然。 人类的基本要求是遵循万物的本质,顺应事物发展的必然趋势,反对人类的干涉、征服和破坏,反对武力和肆意滥用。 为了。

道教要求人们尊重自然、顺应自然、保护自然,人工建筑必须与自然地形相协调。 明成祖向武当山修建寺庙的设计者强调要“比宽比窄”、“顺势而行”。 也就是说,他要求建筑要根据地形、因地制宜、因地制宜地设计。 这确立了自然不能被人为破坏的建筑原则。 明成祖修建大定紫金城时,十分注重人造建筑与自然环境的融合,提出了筑城墙时不得破坏山体的设计和施工要求。 永乐十七年五月,《致隆平侯张信、木心驸马的诏书》中说:“今大岳太和山顶,四面有墙,山本身不需修葺”。一切。城墙必须顺着地形,高低无所谓尺。但人过不去就停下来。一定要坚固坚固,万年如天地长久。 ……故旨之。” 在陡峭的岩壁上筑墙而不开挖山体,对于工程设计师和施工人员来说是一个大难题。

历代管理武当山的皇帝、道士都知道,要达到“天人合一”,要靠人自己的努力。 人类应该主动适应自然、保护自然。 古人保护武当山生态环境的主要方法有以下四点:

1、编印道教书籍,宣扬玄天神热爱生命、善待万物。 道教尊重生命、珍惜生命的思想不仅仅针对人类。 天、地、日、月、草、木、鸟、兽等一切生物的生命都是宝贵的,需要人们以慈悲和善意对待,不能随意伤害。 在《正统道藏》、《大圣玄天真武本传神咒注解》、《玄天神悟录》、《武当福地总真集》、《大明玄天神瑞应图解》等书籍中均使用了篇幅相当大,宣扬净乐太子在武当山修行期间热爱生命、善待万物等道教神话。 “黑虎巡山”、“乌鸦叫晓”等传说,体现了道教文化热爱生命、善待万物、乐于与人合作的精神。 自然界万物和谐共存的理念,为人类保护山林动物免受入侵树立了典范。

2、颁布护山令,禁止砍伐竹林、开垦山坡。 明成化二十年(1484年),宪宗皇帝为了“保护仙山”,下旨划定武当山范围:“吾信大岳太和山,乃宣帝行道之地”。精神出现。它美丽如豹,绵延八百多里,东至关子山,西至雅力坎寨,南至麦厂高,北至白庙儿……潜伏于境,伐竹木,居于田,恐日久侵扰……从此,官兵百姓,各族人民,不得侮辱,亵渎、砍伐、侵犯、滋事,凡敢违抗我命者,将依法受罚,故我下旨。” 嘉靖二十六年(1547年)再次颁布圣旨碑,现仍保存于丹江口市六里坪镇白庙儿、关山镇铁炉村界碑、白杨坪林区珍珠岩等地。 。

3、调兵遣将,修山河,建设生态保护工程。 明朝时,军州卫千户驻地的正规军余丁5000余人奉命留守武当山筑山。 他们的后代相依为命200多年。 除了修复宫殿和寺庙外,他们还在全山修建了许多石墙,以防止山体滑坡和水土流失,构建了世界罕见的古代生态保护工程。 如九渡溪、清阳溪、清微宫、南岩宫、紫霄宫、五龙宫、老君岩、灵虚岩周围,有大量明代修建的挡土石墙。 这一工程的经济保障是明朝皇帝免除均州镇守千户的徭役和耕种粮食。 明代的这一制度安排给我们的启示是,生态建设和保护必须有政策、法规和长效管理制度作为保障机制。

4、宋、元、明、清各代道士都注重山上植树。 特别是南宋道士方昌绪三十多年来坚持在五龙宫周围种植杉树,不间断地栽培、灌溉,给当地人留下了深刻的印象。 明代,各个宫廷都有道士种植的花卉、植物和药材。 关于明代武当山的植被状况,袁仲道(1570-1623)在《太和行记》中说:“近玉虚宫,有茂密的松杉……至五龙宫,有松树、冷杉和深柏树。” 武当山古道两旁,生有野树、竹子,杂花、老藤,纵横生长。 香客、游人徜徉其间,在草木清香中体会人生的乐趣,在潺潺泉水旁品味“道”的真谛。

(4)和:天地和谐。 “太和”观念体现在天地观上,主要把“天”或“天地”视为一个和谐的整体; 从天地万物的转化过程来看,阴阳相合,生出了天地万物。 没有意志力,这是一个自然的过程。 《道德经》第四十二章云:“道生一,道生二,二生三,三生万物。万物阴盛阳,气在和谐。” 第三十二章曰:“天地合而降甘露,民不从命而自律”。 《汉书外传三》:“天助地变,阴阳和”,就是和谐的意思。 《庄子·志北游》曰:“人之生命,气聚也,聚则生,散则死。……故曰:通天地,一只齐耳。” 《庄子季解·德崇赋》:“所谓和,就是天地阴阳二气调和而不偏。” 正因如此,整个体系都遵循普通法“道”。

被道教奉为经典的《周易》认为,天地合一象征着太平盛世。 因此,君主作出安排,促进天地之间的沟通,辅佐和褒奖天地的适当改造,从而保护天下人民。 古代道士、道帝认为,宇宙之道在于天地的和谐——自然的和谐。 只有天地之间的相互作用,才能带来万物的发展和生长。 因此,他们在主持名山景观设计时,常常用天地之数来数山峰、岩石、溪流。 宫殿庙宇中的神道数量也有意与天地数量相一致,以表达对天地和谐、风调雨顺、万物化生、百千万万人的祈祷。 古风灯的深意。 《易经》中,一、三、五、七、九称为天数,二、四、六、八、十称为地数。 根据天圆地方的概念,中国古代人在计算圆形正方形的周长时发现,如果圆的直径等于正方形的边径,则圆的周长之比到广场大约三到四点。 因此,古人用三称为圆,四称为方。 由于古人称天为大圆,地为大方,所以数字三、四不仅是圆、方的象征数字,也是天地十数中天地的真实数字。 。 既然天、三、地、四是天地的实数,那么这两个数的任意倍数也是天地的数,比如九是三的倍数,八是四的倍数等等又因古人认为天、九、地八是天地的终极数,所以称三乘八(8×3=24)为“二十四”,四乘九(9×4=36) “三十六”。 ”而八与九的乘积(8×9=72)“七十二”等数字被视为可以“配天地”、达到天地和谐、万物转化的神秘数字。 。

受易学祥数学流派的影响,武当山自然景观的统计被赋予了天地和谐的神秘色彩。 “七十二峰”、“三十六峰”之说,见于南宋王祥之所著的《玉帝济圣》等书中。 元代武当道士刘道明在《武当福地宗真记》中引《玄天神赞》写道:“七十二峰接天,二十四溪常鸣。三十六岩中多隐士,埋藏在我们山地青翠之中。” 这里的神秘数字不仅象征着天地交互作用所产生的神秘变革力量,也象征着希望与天地和谐、效仿天地之道的目的。武当山主要由道教宫观、庙宇组成,古代道士在设计宫殿时也刻意选择天地之数,如元代就有“一座山九宫八庙”的说法。 ” 正好就是九宫八景。明成祖建造的金殿,是重檐庑殿式屋顶,正是九脊八顶。五龙宫有宣帝殿和七圣寺。”两殿共九层。 前五级八十一级,后四级七十二级。 看着他们,感觉就像在天空中一样。 ” 负责这座宫殿的。设计武当山景观的道士孙碧云显然知道“八”、“九”、“七十二”等神秘数字象征天地和谐、自然和谐的寓意,他们按照皇帝的旨意建造宫殿来祭祀,以示神灵,自然是希望达到与天地和谐的理想目的,使天地相交,万物生机,风调雨顺,五谷丰登。

武当道教核心价值观的现代意义

武当道教的核心价值观,概括为“太和”二字,虽然源于中国传统社会,但既不古老,也不过时。 “太和”理念对现代社会具有积极的借鉴价值。 对于解决现代人类面临的共同问题具有重要意义。 它可以纠正当今人类社会出现的各种弊病,可以为当今人类社会的发展提供有用的信息。 一次积极的经历。

(一)面对当今社会人心浮躁、心理失衡的问题,道家知足、清静、修心、返璞归真等思想可以为解决人体内不和谐的问题提供有价值的参考和心灵。

当代社会,人们对物质财富和感官享受的无止境追求,导致了身心失调和人格分裂。 心理失衡导致精神错乱、酗酒、吸毒、杀人、自杀、极端主义等,造成自我和身体的扭曲。 已经成为一种社会病,严重影响社会安宁。 究其原因,就在于它忽视了“人的身心和谐”。 道教给人一种安身立命的智慧。 它告诉人们,生命的价值和意义在于知足而止,返璞归真。 为了安定自己的生活,我们应该过一种安静、无为的生活。 道教在长期的实践中,形成了一套值得我们借鉴的形神合一、身心和谐、生命双修、悟道的理论和方法。真正的和谐。 这是一种超然自在的人生观,向往自然、质朴、自足、和谐的生活。 武当寺内有秀真寺、福真寺、福真桥、玉真桥、玉真宫等。 设计师通过命名,强调道家修行要达到持元守一、真纯、成真、和谐的理想。 。 只有消除世俗的各种私欲,才能保持本性,才能成神。

林语堂的《我的国家和我的人民》认为:“每个中国人在成功、发达、自豪时是儒家,在失败时是道家”。 道家的人生哲学可以抚慰人们精神上的幻灭和痛苦。 就像服用止痛药一样,让人们以豁达、冷静的态度对待失败,保持平衡的心态。 但道家哲学也可以是成功人士的哲学。 成功人士以这种人生哲学为镜子,时时提醒自己“福祸相依”,不骄不躁,不活在成功中,保持成功的强度和长度。 事实上,成功人士需要道家人生哲学的指导。 这就是所谓的:“圣人虽在庙宇,心无异于森林”。 中国园林为什么要设计山水庭院、桥亭、花草、鱼池? “不惊恩辱,看庭前花开花落;无心离去,看云卷云舒。” 当代社会的物质欲望和激烈的竞争给人们的精神带来了一些新的损失。 在一定程度上,它使人们获得了更加人性化的生活体验。 诗意地生活在大地上,无拘无束、知足常乐地享受生活,这也是道家的人生理想。

(2) In the face of problems such as rising material desires, tense interpersonal relationships, intensified competition for interests, and the prevalence of terrorism in today’s society, Taoist ideas such as unity of love, peace and tolerance, kindness and thrift, and accumulation of virtue for good can provide valuable experience , solve the problem of disharmony between people.

Due to the one-sided pursuit of material interests, the competition for natural resources, the possession of natural resources and the expansion of the desire for power have resulted in confrontations and wars between countries, nations and nations, and regions; since mankind entered the 21st century, extreme Nationalism, racism, and terrorism are prevalent, and organized terrorist attacks against civilians continue unabated. Excessive emphasis on money and material enjoyment has resulted in tense relationships between people, social indifference, spiritual loneliness, and an increasing sense of loss. In human society, children now have children’s problems, young people have youth problems, and old people have old people’s problems. The spiritual distance between people, mutual understanding and even hatred in daily life have caused people to lose their understanding of ” The pursuit of “harmony between people” will eventually lead to the collapse of human society if it continues like this.

Taoism advocates the outlook on life of “unity and love”. Taoism believes that “Tao” not only has the quality of being inclusive of all things, but also has the nature of loving all things; people should have a loving heart, respect differences, be tolerant and treat life kindly, and should establish ” A world of great harmony where there is no distinction between things and ourselves, and the world is one family. The Parent Hall of Zixiao Palace enshrines a statue of Cihang Taoist (the Buddhist Guanyin Bodhisattva). In the past, a couplet posted in the Guanke Hall of the Taoist Palace read: “There are no distinctions between the three religions when you come here. When you come here, you are one family.” Taoism has a very tolerant attitude towards other religious beliefs and does not exclude Confucianism, Buddhism, Manichaeism and other religions. This kind of mentality that embraces all rivers and rivers, this kind of tolerant attitude that does not show self-respect and does not deny paganism, is the cornerstone of pacifism. Carrying forward this spirit of tolerance and peace will undoubtedly play a positive role in adjusting the relationship between nations, religions, and countries in today’s world.

The common saying often spoken by Chinese people, “Emperor and Heaven do not harm good people,” is actually a popular expression of the Taoist idea of “retribution for good and evil”; it is a folk expression of Chapter 79 of the “Tao Te Ching”, “The way of heaven has no relatives, but always associates with good people.” 。 “Heaven has no relatives, but always treats kind people.” In layman’s terms, it means: “Heaven has no relatives, but it always blesses kind people.” The natural rules of heaven are fair, but those who do good deeds and accumulate merit will receive His gifts. The Chinese people have believed in this kind of ethics and morality for generations, that good and evil will be rewarded, and God will bring good things back. It can be seen from this Taoist proverb that traditional Taoist ethical concepts such as “good deeds will be rewarded with good deeds and evil deeds will be rewarded with evil deeds”; “a house that accumulates good deeds will always be blessed” and other traditional Taoist ethical concepts still play an important role in the moral construction of China’s socialist citizens.

(3) In the face of today’s human beings’ endless demands from nature, the increasing pollution of the earth, and the destruction of the ecological environment, the ecological concept of “harmony between man and nature” such as advocating nature, conforming to nature, and caring for nature in Taoist thought can provide valuable experience , to solve the problem of disharmony between man and nature.

Our earth is like a huge spaceship, carrying the residents of the global village to travel in space. The ship has seven billion passengers. The problem is that the spacecraft is suffering from man-made damage. Water pollution, air pollution, soil pollution, noise pollution and other global environmental pollution are becoming increasingly serious, threatening human health. The protective layer of the spacecraft, ozone, is decreasing, and the ecology is out of balance, endangering passengers. Our lives and safety are all caused by man’s endless destructive plundering of the earth’s resources.

Taoism believes that man and nature are organic, isomorphic and mutually reinforcing wholes. 人与自然应该和谐相处。 The development of nature should abide by certain moral principles and fully understand the laws of nature. If you go against the grain and “act recklessly”, it will inevitably cause harm. Humanity itself. Taoism emphasizes that “the way of nature cannot be violated” and believes that heaven, earth, and humans have the same origin and symbiosis, and that all things are one and interdependent. Humans, heaven, earth, and living creatures should maintain a harmonious relationship. Loving life and being kind to all things are the basic value orientations of Wudang Taoist life ethics. Taoism pursues longevity, so it pays special attention to the protection and continuation of life. Taoism’s idea of respecting life and precious life is not just for humans. The lives of all living things such as heaven, earth, sun, moon, grass, trees, birds, and animals are all precious and need to be treated with compassion and kindness by people, and cannot be harmed at will. It can be seen from the ecological protection project in Wudang Mountains 500 years ago that Taoism’s awareness of ecological protection is not to passively abandon things or harm things, but to actively save things and help nature. Helping creatures. This idea has a positive inspiration for modern humans to protect the ecological environment and build an ideal home where humans and natural creatures can live in harmony and coexist harmoniously.

(4) In the face of problems such as earth pollution and frequent natural disasters, Taoist ideas such as maintaining harmony, praising the transformation and education of heaven and earth, and promoting harmony between heaven and earth are worth learning from.

The Book of Changes, regarded as a classic by Taoism, has a special explanation of the transformation of heaven and earth. “Tai Gua·Xiang” says: “The intersection of heaven and earth, Tai, later uses wealth to form the way of heaven and earth, and assists the heaven and earth to control the people.” Translated into vernacular: “The intersection of heaven and earth symbolizes ‘tongtai’; the monarch therefore cuts ties and promotes prosperity.” The way of communication between heaven and earth assists and encourages the appropriate transformation of heaven and earth, so as to protect the people of the world.” “Yi Zhuan” said: “Master Fu, his virtue is in harmony with heaven and earth, his brightness is in harmony with the sun and moon, and he is in harmony with the four seasons. The sequence of events is in harmony with the ghosts and gods. It is innate and natural, and acquired according to the timing of heaven.” “The Book of Changes” believes that the changes in yin and yang reflect the laws of the universe. The movement of “nature” is in “Yuan” (the origin of all things in nature). It is carried out in the beginning), “Heng” (the growth of all things), “Li” (the maturity of all things), and “Zhen” (the completion of all things). In “The Book of Changes” this most perfect “harmony” of “nature” is called “Taihe”. What these words emphasize is that human beings should follow the way of nature, respect the objective laws of nature, and maintain a harmonious relationship with nature.

Chapter 25 of “Tao De Jing”: “Man follows the earth, earth follows heaven, heaven follows Tao, and Tao follows nature.” The basis for Taoism’s respect for nature is the belief that the world is in an eternal cycle of reciprocating motion. Laozi believes that before the formation of heaven and earth, there was a “thing” that was mixed into one, which was “independent and unchangeable, and circulated without peril.” This is the “Tao” as the “root” of all things in heaven and earth. “Tao”, a mixed “thing”, is divided into thousands of different “things”, and the wildly different “things” go from birth to death and then return to the mixed “thing”. Here, all things, including heaven and earth, have not always existed, but are born and destroyed, come and go, and are born again, and this cycle continues endlessly. Chapter 42 of the “Tao Te Ching” says: “All things bear yin and embrace yang, and they are in harmony with each other.” Yin and yang are the endless internal driving forces in the evolution of the universe. The interaction of the two drives the cycle of nature. , inexhaustible eternal motion. All things and all life, including humans, are produced in the cyclic evolution process of Tao, and they must also maintain their survival in this cyclical rhythm of dynamic balance. Therefore, human activities must also be in harmony with the cyclical processes of nature.

Taoism believes that all things have their own nature, and they should conform to their nature, use them according to their talents, and act with spontaneity. “The Taiping Jing” says: “The nature of heaven and earth means that all things have their own suitability. They should be allowed to do what they are capable of. What cannot be done should not be forced.” Cheng Xuanying, a Taoist in the Tang Dynasty, wrote in “Commentaries on Nanhua Zhenjing” Said: “Follow the nature of things created by creation, follow the nature of nature, and do not tolerate selfish magic or measures to control it. If you let it go, everything will be complete.” People should follow the principle of “do nothing in the way of heaven and let things be natural”. Let all things in the universe be “willful” and develop naturally. Cheng Xuanying said: “Be open-minded and let things work, and things will be in their own right.” “But if you do nothing with your mind, things will transform themselves.” Therefore, a sage who understands the “wonderful principles of nature” is “calm and indifferent, and is in harmony with the conditions of things”, so “all things prosper naturally”.

Harmony between heaven and earth, or the harmony of nature, is the most perfect harmony pursued by Taoism.

Ancient Taoist priests and Taoist emperors believed that the way of the universe lies in the harmony of heaven and earth—the harmony of nature. Only the interaction between heaven and earth can bring about the development and growth of all things. A considerable part of Chinese Taoist rituals is to pray for harmony between heaven and earth, for all things to be reincarnated, for the king to be in harmony with heaven and earth, and to achieve a situation of smooth weather and peace for the country and the people.

概括

Although the core values of Wudang Taoism with “Taihe” as the core may have shortcomings that need to be sublated and interpreted and developed in a modern sense, its basic value orientation provides a useful way for the development of today’s human society. Positive experience can correct various ills that occur in today’s society. If the excellent elements of Wudang Taoist core values are refined and creatively transformed and developed in the modern context, it will be of great benefit to building a harmonious society in contemporary China, building a spiritual home shared by the Chinese nation, and assisting the construction of a community with a shared future for mankind. 。

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